|12 Months Ended|
Dec. 31, 2018
|Income Tax Disclosure [Abstract]|
17. Income Taxes
The Company is incorporated in the United States of America and is subject to United States federal taxation. No provisions for income taxes have been made as the Company had no U.S. taxable income for the year ended December 31, 2018 and December 31, 2017.
The Company's Italian subsidiaries are governed by the income tax laws of Italy. The corporate tax rate in Italy is 28.82% (IRES at 24% plus IRAP ordinary at 4.82%) on income reported in the statutory financial statements after appropriate tax adjustments.
The Company's Austrian subsidiaries are governed by the income tax laws of Austria. The corporate tax rate in Austria is 25% on income reported in the statutory financial statements after appropriate tax adjustments.
The Company's Canadian subsidiary is governed by the income tax laws of Canada and the Province of Ontario. The combined Federal and Provincial corporate tax rate in Canada is 26.5% on income reported in the statutory financial statements after appropriate tax adjustments.
On December 22, 2017, the President of the United States signed into law Public Law No. 115-97, commonly referred to as the Tax Reform Act, following its passage by the United States Congress. The Tax Act made significant changes to U.S. federal income tax laws, including reduction of the corporate tax rate from 35.0% to 21.0%, limitation of the deduction for net operating losses to 80.0% of current year taxable income and elimination of net operating loss carrybacks, one-time taxation of offshore earning at reduced rates regardless of whether they are repatriated, elimination of U.S. tax on foreign earnings (subject to certain important exceptions), immediate deductions for certain new investments instead of deductions for depreciation expense over time, and modifying or repealing many business deductions.
On December 22, 2017, Staff Accounting Bulletin No. 118, or SAB 118, was issued to address the application of GAAP in situations when a registrant does not have the necessary information available, prepared, or analyzed (including computations) in reasonable detail to complete the accounting for certain income tax effects of the Tax Act. Additional work is necessary for a more detailed analysis of the deferred tax assets and liabilities and our historical foreign earnings as well as potential correlative adjustments. Any subsequent adjustment to these amounts will be recorded to current tax expense within the measurement period.
The Company continues to evaluate the accounting for uncertainty in tax positions at the end of each reporting period. The guidance requires companies to recognize in their financial statements the impact of a tax position if the position is more likely than not of being sustained if the position were to be challenged by a taxing authority. The position ascertained inherently requires judgment and estimates by management.
The reconciliation of income tax expense at the U.S. statutory rate of 21% and 35% during 2018 and 2017, respectfully, to the Company’s effective tax rate is as follows:
The Company has accumulated a net operating loss carry forward ("NOL") of approximately $17.0 million as of December 31, 2018 in the U.S. This NOL may be offset against future taxable income through the year 2038. The use of these losses to reduce future income taxes will depend on the generation of sufficient taxable income prior to the expiration of the NOL. The Company periodically evaluates whether it is more likely than not that it will generate sufficient taxable income to realize the deferred income tax asset. At the present time, management cannot presently determine when the Company will be able to generate sufficient taxable income to realize the deferred tax asset; accordingly, a 100% valuation allowance has been established to offset the asset.
Utilization of NOLs are subject to limitation due to any ownership change (as defined under Section 382 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986) which resulted in a change in business direction. Unused limitations may be carried over to future years until the NOLs expire. Utilization of NOLs may also be limited in any one year by alternative minimum tax rules.
Under Italian tax law, the operating loss carryforwards available for offset against future profits can be used indefinitely. Operating loss carryforwards are only available for offset against national income tax, up to the limit of 80% of taxable annual income. This restriction does not apply to the operating loss incurred in the first three years of the Company's activity, which are therefore available for 100% offsetting.
Under Austrian tax law, the operating loss carryforwards available for offset against future profits can be used indefinitely. Operating loss carryforwards are only available for offset against national income tax, up to the limit of 75% of taxable annual income.
Under Canadian tax law, the operating loss carryforwards available for offset against future profits can be used indefinitely.
The provisions for income taxes consist of currently payable income tax in Italy and Austria. The provisions for income taxes are summarized as follows:
The tax effects of temporary differences that give rise to the Company’s net deferred tax asset are as follows:
The entire disclosure for income taxes. Disclosures may include net deferred tax liability or asset recognized in an enterprise's statement of financial position, net change during the year in the total valuation allowance, approximate tax effect of each type of temporary difference and carryforward that gives rise to a significant portion of deferred tax liabilities and deferred tax assets, utilization of a tax carryback, and tax uncertainties information.
Reference 1: http://fasb.org/us-gaap/role/ref/legacyRef