Quarterly report pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d)

16. Warrants

16. Warrants
3 Months Ended
Mar. 31, 2023
16. Warrants

16. Warrants


On January 30, 2023, as disclosed in note 12 above, the Company closed a private placement offering of up to 2,000 units and entered into Subscription Agreements with a group of accredited investors (the “Investors”), which Investors included Braydon Capital Corp. a company owned by Claudio Ciavarella, a related party and brother of the Company’s Executive Chairman, Michele Ciavarella. Each Unit sold to Investors was sold at a per unit price of $1,000 and was comprised of (i) a 12% convertible debenture in the principal amount of $1,000 (the “Debentures”), and (ii) warrants to purchase shares of the Company’s common stock (the “Warrants”).


The Investors purchased a total of 850 units and the Company issued Debentures for the total principal amount of $850,000 (the “Principal Amount”) to the Investors and warrants to purchase 2,179,487 shares of common stock of the Company.


The warrants are exercisable at an exercise price equal to the volume weighted average price per share (calculated to the nearest one-hundredth of one cent) of the Company common stock on the Nasdaq stock market for the period of twenty consecutive trading days beginning on the twenty-third trading day immediately preceding the Closing Date and concluding at the close of trading on the third trading day immediately preceding the Closing Date, subject to adjustment as provided in the Warrant and expire three years after the issuance date. Each warrant is exercisable on a cashless basis in the event that there is not an effective registration statement registering the shares underlying the warrant at the time of exercise. The initial exercise price of the warrant is $0.39 per share, subject to a down-round adjustment to a floor exercise price of $0.35 per share.


The Company may accelerate the right to exercise the Warrant on at least ten (10) business days prior written notice to the Holder if there is an effective Registration Statement registering, or a current prospectus available for, the resale of the common shares issuable on exercise of the Warrant and the closing price of the Company’s common shares exceeds two hundred (200%) per cent of the Exercise Price for five (5) trading days in a thirty (30) day period.


The Warrants provide that if the Company issues or sells common stock of securities convertible or exercisable into common stock for a price lower than the exercise price of conversion price that the exercise price and conversion price will be reduced to such price, subject to a floor price of $0.35 and subject to certain exempt issuances set forth in the Debenture and Warrant. 


The number of shares of common stock that may be issued upon exercise of the Warrants and Debentures is subject to an Exchange Cap (as defined in the Debentures and Warrants) unless shareholder approval to exceed the Exchange Cap is approved. The parties agree to amend the Debentures and Warrants as necessary in order to comply with the requirements of the Nasdaq Capital Markets.


On February 14, 2023, the Company engaged Shareholder Intelligence Services, LLC (“ShareIntel”) to utilize their patented, proprietary service offerings to obtain share trading analytic metrics designed to determine if the Company has been the target of improper and potentially illegal trading activities, including illegal naked short selling, in an effort to allow the Company to better monitor trading activity, including potential violations of SEC Regulation SHO, which governs stock and option share locate, close out and fail to deliver requirements.


The Company issued a warrant to purchase up to 200,000 shares of Common Stock to ShareIntel, as consideration for services provided. The Consultant Warrant is exercisable at a price of $0.89 per share and vests at a rate of 1,000 warrant shares for each reduction of 10,000 shares of Reduction in Imbalances (Shorts), and will expire three years from the date of issuance. These warrants only vest upon the attainment of the goals discussed above.




The warrants granted during the three months ended March 31, 2023 were valued using a Black-Scholes pricing model.


The following assumptions were used in the Black-Scholes model:



Three months ended

March 31, 2023

Exercise price   $ 0.39 to 0.89  
Risk free interest rate     3.96 to 4.32 %
Expected life of options     3   years
Expected volatility of underlying stock     130.3 to 133.7 %
Expected dividend rate     0 %


A summary of all of the Company’s warrant activity during the period January 1, 2022 to March 31, 2023 is as follows:


Warrants   Number of shares   Exercise price per share   Weighted average exercise price
Outstanding January 1, 2021     546,336     $ 2.50 to 5.00     $ 2.66  
Granted – pre-funded warrants     541,227       0.0001       0.0001  
Granted     3,166,227       0.9475       0.9475  
Forfeited/cancelled     (48,395     3.75       3.75  
Exercised – pre-funded warrants     (541,227)       0.0001       0.0001  
Outstanding December 31, 2022     3,664,168     $ 0.9475 to 5.00     $ 1.17  
Granted     2,379,487       0.39 to 0.89       0.43  
Forfeited/cancelled     —         —         —    
Exercised     —         —         —    
Outstanding March 31, 2023     6,043,655     $ 0.39 to 5.00     $ 0.88  



The following tables summarize information about warrants outstanding as of March 31, 2023:


Warrants outstanding, Exercise Price  
    Warrants outstanding   Warrants exercisable


Exercise price

    Number of shares       Weighted average remaining years       Weighted average exercise price       Number of shares       Weighted average exercise price  
$0.39     2,179,487       2.84               2,179,487          
$0.89     200,000       2.88               —            
$0.9475     3,166,227       4.71             3,166,227        
$2.50     486,173       2.39             486,173        
$5.00     11,768       0.16               11,768          
      6,043,655       3.78     $ 0.88       5,843,655     $ 0.88  


 The outstanding warrants have an intrinsic value of $270,256 as of March 31, 2023.